10 W Fallon Ave Baker, MT 59313
Fallon County of Montana

Commission Minutes – October 30 – November 3, 2023

Commission Minutes – October 30 – November 3, 2023

                                                                       MONDAY, OCTOBER 30, 2023


PRESENT: Steve Baldwin, Chairman; Kevin Braun and Roy Rost, Members; Brenda Wood, Clerk and Recorder


9:00 AM The Pledge of Allegiance was held in the Commissioner’s Office to start off the week.


          No one appeared for Public Comment         


          Commissioner Braun sent the quarterly test of the Fallon County Employee Alert Notification to all employees.

9:30 AM Josh left the test process.


COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSESSMENT MEETINGS & CREDIBLE MINDS REPORTS/GRANT/Kim Bryan, Director of Public Health; Michelle Moser, Public Health Staff Nurse; Mindi Murnion, Public Health Specialist; Kimberly Jensen, AP Clerk

          County Credit Card permission request-Michelle is getting a county credit card and knows the county policy states the county credit cards are only to be used for travel. Michelle does not travel much, so will not use the county credit card that much. Michelle would like permission to use her county credit card to purchase meals and supplies through her Tobacco grant. Michelle also understands she can use Kimberly’s credit card for meals, supplies, etc., however it is not convenient, especially when they are busy. Michelle’s time is valuable and was looking for a way to may it easier for everyone. Kimberly stated we can set up new vendors, most of the local bars and restaurants already allow the county to charge. Commissioner Baldwin stated if we make an exception to the policy, then everyone will want the same exceptions. Kimberly will get a list of local restaurants and bars that charge to Fallon County and other local vendors sent to Public Health this week. If there are other vendors they plan to use or would like to use, Kimberly will do the footwork to try to set up a charge account with them.   

9:45 AM Michelle and Kimberly left the meeting.

          UPDATES/Testing’s/vaccines/Kim stated most other Public Health Departments are not testing for COVID, they are sending individuals to their primary care provider. Kim has a lack of confidence in the tests they are using. The decision is to give the individual a home test and recommend they see their provider. Discussed the new RSV vaccine for older population and babies is very costly and takes a lot of refrigerator space that they do not have. Kim is fairly certain she will not purchase this vaccine. Kim is also not sure she wants to give the TB skin test any longer, due to possible side effects. Kim would rather individuals go to their primary care provider. The COVID vaccine should be here this week.

          Credible Minds and Grant/Mindi needs the Commission to contact David Espeland and ask him to get the providers to agree to advocate the use of Credible Minds, so Mindi is able to apply for the grant. There has to be a buy-in from the local providers.  Mindi found she can get basic information on the usage so she can report to the Commission. If they find it is not being used, they may not continue on with the program.

           Community Health Assessment/Mindi explained the assessment has to be completed every five (5) years. The grant is for $10,000 and Mindi has a year to get the assessment completed. Mindi will have to hold town hall meetings and will provide meals and collect needed data from the public. Discussed data gathering by using QR codes; Mindi has permission from the schools to use this process at games. Individuals would scan the QR code, complete the survey and could get a free bag of popcorn for completing the survey. Mindi will also visit with other businesses, etc. to ask if they will use the QR codes, people could obtain a free item for completing the survey. Mindi will also purchase gift cards, etc. to give out.  The grant will pay for the meals, gift cards, etc. Mindi stressed the Commission and Public Officials need to attend these meetings as well. Mindi will not be applying for the $25,000 Community Health Awareness grant until the assessment process is complete.

10:07 AM Robert and Melissa Thielen joined.  

          EMI Board/Commissioner Braun asked if Mindi would be interested in being on this board. Commissioner Braun explained this board and its inner workings.  Mindi would be interested in being on the board and attending meetings, may not be able to attend them all. Kim stated if Mindi could not attend, she would be willing to attend.

10:08 AM Mindi and Kim left the meeting.

10:09 AM ROAD/SHOP UPDATES/Carl Overland, Shop Mechanic

          UPDATES/ The loader is done; will be transitioning a new Sheriff Office vehicle in service when it arrives; will also get the ambulances serviced before the upcoming inspection. 

         Roads/Everyone is out plowing, all blades are winged up. Commissioner Braun asked if Pennel Road had been dressed up because it was in pretty bad shape.  Carl was not sure about that and since all blades were winged up is not sure how that works. Commissioner Baldwin asked about moving the EMS trailer parked by the EMS building, since that area is used during snow removal.  Carl tried to move it but will try again when Mitch returns. The new blade will arrive this week; if they were to get it with a new wing it would not arrive until February. They plan to use the old wing and get credit for the new wing.  Commissioner Braun stated the building needs to be moved from the old landfill. Carl stated the trailers are still parked inside and they weren’t sure where they wanted them to be stored. Commissioner Braun stated we seem to keep putting this off. Carl stated they have been shorthanded and working on other projects, like the city project, etc. Commissioner Baldwin stated we do need to have the signs available when needed for sure and understands they have been busy and shorthanded. No further discussion.

10:16 AM Carl left the meeting.

             1.Permission to hire Road Department Operator(s)/Julie Straub, HRM

                   Julie stated they would like to hire Larry Donnelly as a Road Department Operator. Julie further stated Larry understands the probationary period.

Commissioner Rost made the motion to hire Larry Donnelly as a Road Department Operator.  Commissioner Braun seconded the motion.  Commissioner Baldwin asked for any discussion.  Start date for Larry will be November 1st and Orientation November 2nd.  Commissioner Baldwin asked for any other discussion; being none. 3 Ayes. 0 Nays. The motion carried unanimously. 

10:21 AM Julie left the meeting. 

10:31 AM Darcy Wassmann, County Attorney joined.

10:31 AM THIELEN ACCESS ROAD/LETTER REGARDING SLANDER OF TITLE/Robert & Melissa Thielen; Casey Heitz, Thielen Attorney (via conference call); Darcy Wassmann, County Attorney; Cindy Irgens, Recording Clerk; Shannon Hewson, Brosz Engineering


          Melissa asked to have a Correction made to the minutes from October 16th.  Minutes state: Robert stated the county came out to mow and clean the creek. Melissa stated the county was sent out to mow but did not clean the creek. Robert stated he cleaned the creek. Commission agreed to make this correction to the minutes.

          Darcy is consulting with Susan Swimley and was not able to get a phone conference with her until last Friday. Darcy has not had time to research, so we do not have a formal response today. Darcy stated we believe these are public records and nothing recorded was recorded maliciously. Darcy relayed again; we are trying to get our records straightened up for all county roads. We feel we have the right to record these documents because they are part of our records, that are in our possession.

          Again, discussed a time limit for documents to be recorded. Darcy explained if two (2) people receive a competing interest in the land; the first to record, and if they are a bona fide purchaser, they may have priority. Darcy feels these are two different issues; road issues and the recording issue.

          Casey stated the Thielen’s took possession of this property without those encumbrances. Casey agrees with Darcy’s statement regarding the competing interest. Casey asked if the documents were going to be removed, if not the Thielen’s will probably move forward with litigation. Darcy stated it is her recommendation they will not be removed, however, that would be a commissioner decision.         

          Commissioner Braun discussed some documents do not get recorded right away; it was determined there is not a time limit for recording county documents that are in our possession. No different than the oil companies that don’t bring in documents that are 50 years old. Melissa and Robert stated those documents were improperly recorded and further stated the oil companies do have to notify you when they are recording a document on your property. Casey contends, if someone records documents after someone purchases property and after they have been told they have a clear title; those documents are encumbrances and slander to their title. Commissioner Rost asked Casey where that was in statute.  Casey could find that information but did not feel it was up to him to get that information for the Commission, Darcy can get that information for them.

           Casey stated today was the day to get this matter resolved and since that is not the case. If the documents are not going to be removed, it is up to the Thielen’s how they want to proceed. Casey stated the county contends the documents were not maliciously recorded, Casey disagrees with that. You further contend the documents are not going to be removed, then we are spinning our wheels.

           Darcy stated the recording statute allows the county to record public records and that is what we are doing, recording our public records. Casey asked what statute pertains to that. Darcy cannot cite the exact statute but will send the statute to Casey. The Thielen’s stated the county did this behind their backs and without their knowledge.

          Darcy stated we are trying to clean up our records and by doing so we are putting county documents on record. The Thielen’s contend the documents being placed of record involve every piece of property they own. Thielen’s further stated the county did the same thing to them on the Bickle Road. Darcy stated the county provided all of those records to Thielen’s; they knew those records existed. The county is now recording them, and we believe we can, per statute.

           Commissioner Braun stated we hired Brosz Engineering to complete this road project. Of the documents we are currently going through and putting on record, 149 were recorded in Township 8; 115 were recorded in Township 9; and 17 recorded so far in Township 10 and is currently the Township being worked on. These documents involve more than the Thielen’s property. The Commission’s goal is, you will be able to click on any county road and see every document pertaining to that road.

          Thielen’s asked if the people in this county know that these documents are being recorded on their property. No one has been contacted about the county recording its public documents. Commissioner Braun stated this will all be decided by a judge. Melissa stated one of the recorded documents was from the Fallon County Times. Cindy stated it is an original document, printed on a form from the Fallon County Times.  Darcy stated, the Fallon County Times was our printing company and again stated these documents are original documents that are part of the county records.

           Thielen’s and Mr. Heitz believe the recording of these documents are slandering their title and legally should not be put on record. Thielen’s stated they will see the county in court.

10:47 AM Casey hung up the phone, leaving the meeting. Robert and Melissa left the meeting. Cindy left the meeting.

11:00 AM Darcy left the meeting.

11:00 AM PROJECT UPDATES/Shannon Hewson, Brosz Engineering

          UPDATES/Road Plat Project-Mike Madler is running through all of the petitions and has 70 of 500 completed and figures it will be approximately another 10 weeks to complete that portion. Petitions and Abandonments there are approximately 500; Easements there are approximately 1000; and approximately 500 Right of Ways.  While Mike continues to work on his portion, Katie is working on the GIS portion of the project. Shannon wants to have a meeting to review the preliminary information possibly December 18, 2023. Hope to complete the GIS side of this by February and get this semi-final by April. Upper and Lower dams/The inspections were completed last week. Lower Dam/Looks okay other than a tree on one side that appears to have been sprayed, needs to be cut. Upper Dam/The articulating mat failed, due to wave action the water washed under the bottom layer of the mat causing erosion. There are also a lot of cottonwoods on the face of the Upper Dam that need to be mowed. Shannon again stated the bottom leg of the Upper Dam articulating mat failed. The decision is to rip/rap that portion to stop further erosion. Shannon stated there used to be vegetation in that area to protect from erosion.  Shannon will get some quantities for the rip rap needed. Bergstrom Hill Road joint application will be prepared and brought in next week.  Courthouse entrances/Shannon will send pictures to SDI. Courthouse Drainage/Shannon will work with Derrick deHaan, Maintenance Assistant to move that forward. FMC water issue/They need to move the electrical and slope for drainage purposes. This will be a large project; will need to work with an electrical engineer to move the process forward. Crushed scoria bid/Will work with Road Superintendent on the bid specifications needed (2” or 3” minus).

11:35 AM Shannon left the meeting.

11:50 PM Commissioner Rost made the motion to recess. Commissioner Braun seconded the motion.

Commissioner Baldwin asked for any discussion; being none.  3 Ayes. 0 Nays. The motion carried unanimously.

          NOON RECESS

PRESENT: Steve Baldwin, Chairman; Kevin Braun and Roy Rost, Members; Brenda Wood, Clerk and Recorder



       Gary Thielen, Mayor-Town of Plevna/Discussed road maintenance in Plevna; discussed future maintenance plan for the streets. They need assistance getting a grant for a water well. The Commission suggested they contact EPEDC for assistance with the grant.

       Thielen Access/Gary discussed the wooden bridge that existed, west of the cattleguard, on the creek, which comes through Thielen Access. Years ago, someone went over the wooden bridge with a grain truck and fell through. The County then replaced the bridge with two culverts. Gary stated there was another wooden bridge on Burnt Station Road that was replaced for the same reason. Gary misstated in previous minutes; work that had been completed by Jessie Schell; Jessie completed some maintenance on the culverts but did not place the culverts as he had previously stated.

1:17 PM Amanda Williams, County Extension Agent joined. 

Gary explained his grandfather asked the county to move the road out of their yard. They, (Thielen Grandparents), wanted the roads open for their use.

1:23 PM Gary left Public Comment.

          Amanda stated it has been brought to her attention by members of the public; the split for the County Extension office between Fallon and Carter Couties is a 40% Carter and 60% Fallon County split. The question has been asked, should Amanda be spending two (2) days in Ekalaka rather than one (1) day per week. The Commission feels it is based on where you are needed at the time. Amanda explained Carter County is utilizing her more now and there is a want to have her down there more, mostly during the summer months, maybe not so much during the winter months. The Carter County Museum and Conservation District would like to do more programming and utilize her for that also.

1:26 PM Darcy Wassmann, County Attorney joined.

The Commission asked if Amanda had discussed this with Larry Brence, Eastern MT District Supervisor. Amanda wanted to talk to the Commission first. Amanda stated it takes approximately two (2) years to build up credibility within your communities. Amanda wanted to let the Commission know this.

1:29 PM Amanda left Public Comment.

1:30 PM COUNTY ATTORNEY WORK SESSION/Darcy Wassmann, County Attorney

          1.Indigent Burial policy discussion/decision

                Darcy completed a resolution to adopt the indigent burial policy. Commission discussed removing the amount from the resolution.  Darcy felt they could have two separate resolutions; one would take care of the policy and the other would contain the amount the county would pay.

          2.Revise/Sign Interlocal Agreement with the City of Baker for the Planning Board

                 Darcy will revise and return the interlocal agreement for approval and signatures.

           3.Review/Discuss/Approve agreement for on-call planning services/flood plain mgmt. with Peaks Planning and Consulting, LLC

                 Darcy will review the agreement we have on record now and compare it to the updated agreement the contractor sent. 

          4.Policies/procedures for gate permit system (discussion/decisions as needed)

                Discussed the policy and placing stipulations, such as gates, can only be closed when livestock is present. Darcy stated the commission can place other restrictions and conditions on the permit, at their discretion. Discussed having a place on the permit that asks for affected landowners. After drafting the policy, the commission discussed having a two-week comment period, and putting the permitting policy on the agenda.

          5.Old or other county business (as needed)

                The TV District Board wants to combine two TV Districts and was going to visit with Darcy regarding the process they would need to follow. Discussed land locked property in which the taxes are delinquent. Also discussed bridge closed for safety and budget reasons.

2:24 PM Trenton Harbaugh, Sheriff joined.

          Trenton was asked to join and was updated on a road matter.

2:28 PM Trenton left the meeting.

2:29 PM Darcy left the work session.


         Garbage containers-They currently have nine (9) black garbage containers. They have two (2) in the arena that may not need to stay there. Discussed placing three (3) behind the exhibit hall; one (1) west of the livestock barn and one (1) at the lower stalls; one (1) in the arena but will not need to be placed until summer. Jennefer will reach out if more containers are needed.

2:39 PM Kimberly left the meeting.  

2:40 PM Linden Krech, FMC Housekeeping Manager joined.

          Light pole-The City of Baker discussed putting a light pole in the Fairgrounds parking lot or putting another light on an existing pole to shine on Martin Avenue. The cost of electricity was discussed and mentioning this to Jennefer’s Fair Board members. 

2:46 PM Jennefer left the meeting.


         Linden introduced herself to the commission and stated she wanted to discuss the leak in the basement of long-term care at FMC. Linden discussed David Espeland, FMC-CEO had made them aware of this matter and thought it was supposed to be dealt with two (2) years ago after the Parkview project was completed. Linden is concerned about the integrity of the building, mold, and welfare and safety of the employees due to the electrical matter involved with this.  Linden emailed the commission about this and never heard back. The commission explained the engineers came down to look at this and the project is quite extensive. The Commission needs to get it on the project list. The commission has no timeline; SDI was aware of it and that person left the company, so the commission needs to talk to the new owner about this.  The feeling is the best-case scenario would be to get some quotes and go from there, possibly early spring or summer. 

2:53 PM Linden left the meeting.


          The Commission reviewed revenues received, reports, emails and other correspondence, board minutes and agendas.

          1.Old Business (as needed)/

             a.Coral Creek Landfill Trust Account (any decisions needed)

                  No further discussion until Thursday, November 2nd.

             b.Any decisions regarding the agreement between Fallon County and EMEDA for use of County Land for purposes of Food Forest

                 The County Attorney contacted EMEDA regarding the contract. Still no word back regarding the agreement.

          c.Policies/procedures for gate permit system (discussion/decisions as needed)

                The Commission and County Attorney continue working on the permit and process.

          d.Indigent Burial Policy (discussion/decisions as needed)

                The County Attorney brought a resolution, and they continue to work on the process.

3:30 PM Commissioner Braun was excused for the day. 

          e.Decision to sign 911 GIS Data Maintenance Agreement between Fallon County and KLJ Engineering, LLC

                The Commission discussed the $40,000 stated in the agreement. Not signed at this time.

           f.Review/Approve agreement for on-call planning services/flood plain mgmt. with Peaks Planning and Consulting, LLC

                 Darcy is reviewing the existing recorded agreement with the updated document sent by Peaks Planning and Consulting, LLC.

           g.Review/Approve revised interlocal agreement with the City of Baker for the Planning Board

                 Darcy will revise and return to the Commission for further review.

          h. Other old business as needed

                 None at this time.


3.Review & Approve Encroachment/Approach Permits (as needed)

4.Review Board Minutes/Agendas (Boards other than Commission)

5.Review Department/office reports/sign journal vouchers (as needed)

6.Review/Discuss/Decision – any Parkview Rental Agreements/Addendums (as needed)

7.Executive Action Items:

     a. Permission to complete LED Lighting project

             The Commission granted permission to finish the courthouse lighting project. Lynda will be notified.

     b.Decision for Peaks Planning to finish amending the Subdivision Regulations

              No discussion on this today.

     c.Approve/Sign Johnson Control proposal(s)

              Commissioner Baldwin signed the Johnson Control proposal and service agreement in the amount of $2,451.96 for labor and materials to repair the dual module relay for the door holder, (for fire doors), and replacement of pull station. This work will be completed under the grandstands. 

     d.Adopt Resolution #1117-Amending Per Diem and Travel Rates

Commissioner Rost made the motion to adopt Resolution #1117 to amend the per diem and travel rates.  Commissioner Baldwin stepped down and seconded the motion. Commissioner Baldwin asked if there was any discussion; being none. 2 Ayes. 0 Nays. 1 Absent. (Commissioner Braun).


          The Commission did not approve at this time.

3:55 PM Commissioner Baldwin was excused briefly.

3:56 PM Commissioner Rost contacted Duane Kaul, KLJ regarding the 911 agreement.  

          Duane explained the figure in the agreement is an estimate; the County will only be billed for the hours worked. If they come within 80% of the amount quoted in the agreement the computer is automatically set to send a notification, so they know they need to send an amendment to the agreement. This was built in, so they do not exceed the stated amount. Commissioner Rost will explain this to the rest of the Commission.

3:58 PM Duane hung up the phone, leaving the conversation.

3:58 PM Trenton Harbaugh, Sheriff joined.

3:59 PM FY25 SALARY SCHEDULE WORK SESSION/Julie Straub, HRM; Christa Alford, Payroll Clerk; Debbie Wyrick, Deputy Clerk and Recorder

          Longevity scale and possible correction were discussed.

4:11 PM Commissioner Baldwin joined.

Longevity was further discussed; Julie feels at 30 years the bump should increase more than .15 cents. If the max is $5.00 per hour for longevity, that would be the bump at the 30-year mark. Commissioner Rost discussed having a base pay (feels that is possibly the Clerk wage) and bringing department heads up to that base. If the department heads are below the base rate, they could be brought up to that base, so pay is even for department heads. Then they would build the remainder of the salary schedule from there. Commissioner Rost again compared the clerk rate of pay to department heads, (if using the clerks as a baseline). Market adjustments were discussed and possibly the COLA would not be as much. Trenton does not want longevity to replace COLA. Commissioner Rost explained he wants a baseline but is not certain what the baseline should be. Discussion regarding keeping longevity separate and the fact market adjustments should not be used as a COLA. Discussed one (1) person departments and how to balance that. Julie explained our local government is in a precarious situation due to our location and competing with oil and gas industry wages. Commissioner Baldwin asked to schedule a work session for the commission to discuss before asking Julie, Debbie, and Christa to spend a lot of time when no one is sure where to go from here.

5:09 PM Julie, Christa, Debbie, and Trenton left the meeting.

5:10 PM Cindy Irgens, Recording Clerk joined.

          Discussed the road project and recording of old road documents will continue to be recorded, as time allows. The Commission feels the recordings will be a valuable asset when researching county roads in the future. 

5:17 PM Cindy left the meeting.

Commissioner Rost explained a phone conversation he had with Duane Kaul, KLJ regarding the 911-GIS agreement to Commissioner Baldwin.

Commissioner Rost made the motion to approve and sign the 911 GIS Data Maintenance Agreement between Fallon County and KLJ Engineering, LLC, after further clarification from KLJ. Commissioner Baldwin stepped down to second the motion. Commissioner Baldwin asked for any further discussion; being none. 2 Ayes. 0 Nays. 1 Absent. (Commissioner Braun). The motion carried.

5:25 PM Commissioner Rost made the motion to recess until Thursday, November 2, 2023. Commissioner Baldwin stepped down to second the motion. Commissioner Baldwin asked for any other discussion; being none. 2 Ayes. 0 Nays. 1 Absent. (Commissioner Braun). The motion carried.


                                                                 THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 2, 2023

PRESENT: Steve Baldwin, Chairman; Kevin Braun, Member; Brenda Wood, Clerk and Recorder

ABSENT:  Roy Rost, Member


10:30 AM CORAL CREEK LANDFILL TRUST ACCOUNT TEAMS MEETING WITH WELLS FARGO TRUST REPRESENTATIVES/DISCUSSION/DECISIONS PERTAINING TO TERMINATION OF TRUST WITH WELLS FARGO/Kaleena Marshall, Wells Fargo-Senior Trust Officer; Beth Avery, WF Trust Manager; Jodie Gordon, WF Trust Risk Manager; Barbara Ketterling, Treasurer/Assessor; Julie Post, Deputy Treasurer/Assessor; Shawn Wiseman, Bank of Baker

          Introductions took place. Kaleena stated the reason for the call was to find out what Fallon County plans to do regarding the Coral Creek Landfill Trust. Kaleena explained the county has two (2) options; termination of the trust or name a new successor trustee.  Commissioner Baldwin stated the county has already determined they plan to terminate the trust and put our money in our local bank. Kaleena explained the first step is to petition the court to terminate the trust.  The Commission explained the county had already contacted the County Attorney to begin that process.  Kaleena explained if that is the county’s decision, Wells Fargo would not object. Commissioner Baldwin explained the county has decided to petition the court and again stated that is what we have instructed our County Attorney to do. Jodie stated Wells Fargo would appreciate a copy of the petition before it is filed. Kaleena asked for further questions from the county. Commissioner Baldwin asked about removing the fees charged to this account over the last year. Kaleena asked for clarification if these were fees the bank was charging. The response from the county representatives was, yes. Beth stated Wells Fargo can escalate the matter on their side and Wells Fargo would normally continue to charge fees until the petition process is complete. Wells Fargo can see if some accommodation can be made but they are still maintaining the account. Commissioner Baldwin stated the county will stay in touch with Kaleena. Kaleena asked for further questions. Barbara stated the continual decrease in value is concerning. Beth stated the fees are for maintaining the account and the investments cause the increase/decrease in funds based on the market. Beth further stated they are on the administrative side, but she could set up a separate call with the investment side.  Commissioner Baldwin stated that was not necessary; the county will continue to proceed with the petition process. Kaleena will wait to hear back in regard to the petition.

10:44 AM Kaleena, Beth and Jodie hung up the phone, leaving the meeting.

10:48 AM Barbara and Julie left the meeting.

10:50 AM Shawn left the meeting.


Commissioner Braun made the motion to approve the October 23-Otober 27, 2023 minutes.  Commissioner Baldwin stepped down from the chair to second the motion.  Commissioner Baldwin asked for any discussion; being none.  2 Ayes. 0 Nays. 1 Absent. (Commissioner Rost). The motion carried.

11:18 AM Commissioner Baldwin will attend the Chamber meeting this month. 

11:20 AM Commissioner Braun made the motion to adjourn.  Commissioner Baldwin stepped down from the chair to second the motion.  Commissioner Baldwin asked for any discussion; being none.  2 Ayes. 0 Nays. 1 Absent. (Commissioner Rost). The motion carried.



          Commissioner Baldwin attended.

                                                                                        FALLON COUNTY COMMISSION

                                                                                       s/Steve Baldwin


Brenda J. Wood, Clerk and Recorder